The anal canal is a short tube surrounded by muscle at the end of your rectum. The rectum is the bottom section of your colon (large intestine). An anal fissure (also called fissure-in-ano) is a small rip or tear in the lining of the anal canal. Fissures are common, but are often confused with other anal conditions, such as hemorrhoids.
Anal fissures typically cause a sharp pain that starts with the passage of stool. This pain may last several minutes to a few hours. As a result, many patients may try not to have bowel movements to prevent pain.
Treatment includes: Chemical Sphincterotomy – use of 20 units of injection Botulinum toxin , which is injected in the internal sphincters in doctor’s office. The effect of this medicine starts after 48 hours and lasts for upto 3 months. It relaxes the internal Sphincter muscles and prevent it from reflexly contracting when the stools is passed, thereby giving rest to the fissure and escalates the healing process.
Along with Chemical Sphincetrotomy, WASH regimen is advised as mentions below:-
Chronic fissures are harder to treat and surgery may be the best option. The goal of surgery is to help the anal sphincter muscle relax which reduces pain and spasms, allowing the fissure to heal. Surgical options include surgical division of an inner part of the anal sphincter called as lateral internal Sphincterotomy (LIS).
Most patients can return to work and go back to daily activities within few days after surgery. High fiber diet and plenty of oral liquids are encouraged postoperatively as continued hard or loose bowel movements or spasm of the internal anal muscle can delay healing.
Anal fissures do not increase the risk of colon cancer nor cause it.